dhclient-script - DHCP client network configuration script
The DHCP client network configuration script is invoked from time to time by dhclient(8). This script is used by the dhcp client to set each interface's initial configura tion prior to requesting an address, to test the address once it has been offered, and to set the interface's final configuration once a lease has been acquired. If no lease is acquired, the script is used to test predefined leases, if any, and also called once if no valid lease can be identified. This script is not meant to be customized by the end user. If local customizations are needed, they should be possi ble using the enter and exit hooks provided (see HOOKS for details). These hooks will allow the user to override the default behaviour of the client in creating a /etc/resolv.conf file. No standard client script exists for some operating sys tems, even though the actual client may work, so a pio neering user may well need to create a new script or mod ify an existing one. In general, customizations specific to a particular computer should be done in the ETCDIR/dhclient.conf file. If you find that you can't make such a customization without customizing dhclient- script or using the enter and exit hooks, please submit a bug report.
When it starts, the client script first defines a shell function, make_resolv_conf , which is later used to create the /etc/resolv.conf file. To override the default behaviour, redefine this function in the enter hook script. On after defining the make_resolv_conf function, the client script checks for the presence of an executable ETCDIR/dhclient-enter-hooks script, and if present, it invokes the script inline, using the Bourne shell '.' com mand. The entire environment documented under OPERATION is available to this script, which may modify the environ ment if needed to change the behaviour of the script. If an error occurs during the execution of the script, it can set the exit_status variable to a nonzero value, and ETCDIR/dhclient-script will exit with that error code immediately after the client script exits. After all processing has completed, ETCDIR/dhclient-script checks for the presence of an executable ETCDIR/dhclient- exit-hooks script, which if present is invoked using the '.' command. The exit status is passed in the exit_status shell variable, and will always be zero if the script succeeded at the task for which it was invoked.
When dhclient needs to invoke the client configuration script, it writes a shell script into /tmp which defines a variety of variables. In all cases, $reason is set to the name of the reason why the script has been invoked. The following reasons are currently defined: MEDIUM, PREINIT, ARPCHECK, ARPSEND, BOUND, RENEW, REBIND, REBOOT, EXPIRE, FAIL and TIMEOUT.
The DHCP client is requesting that an interface's media type be set. The interface name is passed in $interface, and the media type is passed in $medium.
The DHCP client is requesting that an interface be config ured as required in order to send packets prior to receiv ing an actual address. For clients which use the BSD socket library, this means configuring the interface with an IP address of 0.0.0.0 and a broadcast address of 255.255.255.255. For other clients, it may be possible to simply configure the interface up without actually giv ing it an IP address at all. The interface name is passed in $interface, and the media type in $medium. If an IP alias has been declared in dhclient.conf, its address will be passed in $alias_ip_address, and that ip alias should be deleted from the interface, along with any routes to it.
The DHCP client is requesting that an address that has been offered to it be checked to see if somebody else is using it, by sending an ARP request for that address. It's not clear how to implement this, so no examples exist yet. The IP address to check is passed in $new_ip_address, and the interface name is passed in $interface.
The DHCP client wants to know if a response to the ARP request send using ARPSEND has been received. If one has, the script should exit with a nonzero status, indi cating that the offered address has already been requested and should be declined. $new_ip_address and $interface are set as with ARPSEND.
The DHCP client has done an initial binding to a new address. The new ip address is passed in $new_ip_address, and the interface name is passed in $interface. The media type is passed in $medium. Any options acquired from the server are passed using the option name described in dhcp-options, except that dashes ('-') are replaced by underscores ('_') in order to make valid shell variables, and the variable names start with new_. So for example, the new subnet mask would be passed in $new_subnet_mask. When a binding has been completed, a lot of network param eters are likely to need to be set up. A new /etc/resolv.conf needs to be created, using the values of $new_domain_name and $new_domain_name_servers (which may list more than one server, seperated by spaces). A default route should be set using $new_routers, and static routes may need to be set up using $new_static_routes. If an IP alias has been declared, it must be set up here. The alias IP address will be written as $alias_ip_address, and other DHCP options that are set for the alias (e.g., subnet mask) will be passed in variables named as described previously except starting with $alias_ instead of $new_. Care should be taken that the alias IP address not be used if it is identical to the bound IP address ($new_ip_address), since the other alias parameters may be incorrect in this case.
When a binding has been renewed, the script is called as in BOUND, except that in addition to all the variables starting with $new_, there is another set of variables starting with $old_. Persistent settings that may have changed need to be deleted - for example, if a local route to the bound address is being configured, the old local route should be deleted. If the default route has changed, the old default route should be deleted. If the static routes have changed, the old ones should be deleted. Otherwise, processing can be done as with BOUND.
The DHCP client has rebound to a new DHCP server. This can be handled as with RENEW, except that if the IP address has changed, the ARP table should be cleared.
The DHCP client has successfully reacquired its old address after a reboot. This can be processed as with BOUND.
The DHCP client has failed to renew its lease or acquire a new one, and the lease has expired. The IP address must be relinquished, and all related parameters should be deleted, as in RENEW and REBIND.
The DHCP client has been unable to contact any DHCP servers, and any leases that have been tested have not proved to be valid. The parameters from the last lease tested should be deconfigured. This can be handled in the same way as EXPIRE.
The DHCP client has been unable to contact any DHCP servers. However, an old lease has been identified, and its parameters have been passed in as with BOUND. The client configuration script should test these parameters and, if it has reason to believe they are valid, should exit with a value of zero. If not, it should exit with a nonzero value. The usual way to test a lease is to set up the network as with REBIND (since this may be called to test more than one lease) and then ping the first router defined in $routers. If a response is received, the lease must be valid for the network to which the interface is currently connected. It would be more complete to try to ping all of the routers listed in $new_routers, as well as those listed in $new_static_routes, but current scripts do not do this.
Each operating system should generally have its own script file, although the script files for similar operating sys tems may be similar or even identical. The script files included in the Internet Software Consortium DHCP distri bution appear in the distribution tree under client/scripts, and bear the names of the operating sys tems on which they are intended to work.
If more than one interface is being used, there's no obvi ous way to avoid clashes between server-supplied configu ration parameters - for example, the stock dhclient-script rewrites /etc/resolv.conf. If more than one interface is being configured, /etc/resolv.conf will be repeatedly ini tialized to the values provided by one server, and then the other. Assuming the information provided by both servers is valid, this shouldn't cause any real problems, but it could be confusing.
dhclient(8), dhcpd(8), dhcrelay(8), dhclient.conf(5) and dhclient.leases(5).
dhclient-script(8) has been written for the Internet Soft ware Consortium by Ted Lemon <email@example.com> in cooper ation with Vixie Enterprises. To learn more about the Internet Software Consortium, see http://www.vix.com/isc. To learn more about Vixie Enterprises, see http://www.vix.com.
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