NAMED [-d debuglevel] [-p port#] [-(b|c) config_file] [-f -q -r -v] [-u user_name] [-g group_name] [-t directory] [-w directory] [config_file]
Named is the Internet domain name server. See RFC's 1033, 1034, and 1035 for more information on the Internet name-domain system. Without any ar guments, named will read the default configuration file /etc/named.conf, read any initial data, and listen for queries. A config_file argument given at the end of the command line will override any config_file speci fied by using the ``-b'' or ``-c'' flags. NOTE: Several of named's options, and much more of its behaviour, can be controlled in the configuration file. Please refer to the configuration file guide included with this BIND distribution for further information. Options are: -d debuglevel Print debugging information. The debuglevel is a number de termines the level of messages printed. If negative, debuglevel is set to ``1''. NOTE: The new debugging framework is considerably more so phisticated than it was in older versions of NAMED. The con figuration file's ``logging'' statement allows for multiple, distinct levels of debugging for each of a large set of cate gories of events (such as queries, transfers in or out, etc.). Please refer to the configuration file guide included with this BIND distribution for further information about these extensive new capabilities. -p port# Use the specified remote port number; this is the port number to which NAMED will send queries. The default value is the standard port number, i.e., the port number returned by get servbyname(3) for service ``domain''. NOTE: Previously, the syntax ``-p port#[/localport#]'' was supported; the first port was that used when contacting remote servers, and the second one was the service port bound by the local instance of NAMED. The current usage is equiva lent to the old usage without the localport# specified; this functionality can be specified with the ``listen-on'' clause of the configuration file's ``options'' statement. -(b|c) config_file Use an alternate config_file; this argument is overridden by any config_file which is specified at the end of the command line. The default value is /etc/named.conf. -f Run this process in the foreground; don't fork(2) and daemo nize. (The default is to daemonize.) NOTE: This option can be overridden by and is deprecated in favor of the ``recursion'' clause of the configuration file's ``options'' statement. -v Report the version and exit. -u user_name Specifies the user the server should run as after it initial izes. The value specified may be either a username or a nu meric user id. If the ``-g'' flag is not specified, then the group id used will be the primary group of the user specified (initgroups() is called, so all of the user's groups will be available to the server). -g group_name Specifies the group the server should run as after it ini tializes. The value specified may be either a groupname or a numeric group id. -t directory Specifies the directory the server should chroot() into as soon as it is finshed processing command line arguments. -w directory Sets the working directory of the server. The ``directory'' clause of the configuration file's ``options'' statement overrides any value specified on the command line. The de fault working directory is the current directory (``.''). Any additional argument is taken as the name of the configuration file, for compatibility with older implementations; as noted above, this argu ment overrides any config_file specified by the use of the ``-b'' or ``-c'' flags. If no further argument is given, then the default configu ration file is used (/etc/named.conf). Master File Format The master file consists of control information and a list of resource records for objects in the zone of the forms: $INCLUDE <filename> <opt_domain> $ORIGIN <domain> $TTL <ttl> <domain> <opt_ttl> <opt_class> <type> <resource_record_data> where: domain is ``.'' for root, ``@'' for the current origin, or a stan dard domain name. If domain is a standard domain name that does not end with ``.'', the current origin is appended to the domain. Domain names ending with ``.'' are unmodified. opt_domain This field is used to define an origin for the data in an included file. It is equivalent to placing an $ORIGIN statement before the first line of the included file. The opt_class The object address type; currently only one type is sup ported, IN, for objects connected to the DARPA Internet. type This field contains one of the following tokens; the data expected in the resource_record_data field is in parenthe ses: A a host address (dotted-quad IP address) NS an authoritative name server (domain) MX a mail exchanger (domain), preceded by a preference value (0..32767), with lower numeric values representing higher logical preferences. CNAME the canonical name for an alias (domain) SOA marks the start of a zone of authority (domain of originating host, domain ad dress of maintainer, a serial number and the following parameters in seconds: re fresh, retry, expire and minimum TTL (see RFC 883 and RFC 2308)). NULL a null resource record (no format or data) RP a Responsible Person for some domain name (mailbox, TXT-referral) PTR a domain name pointer (domain) HINFO host information (cpu_type OS_type) Resource records normally end at the end of a line, but may be continued across lines between opening and closing parentheses. Comments are in troduced by semicolons and continue to the end of the line. NOTE: There are other resource record types not shown here. You should consult the BIND Operations Guide (``BOG'') for the complete list. Some resource record types may have been standardized in newer RFC's but not yet implemented in this version of BIND. SOA Record Format Each master zone file should begin with an SOA record for the zone. An example SOA record is as follows: @ IN SOA ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. ( 1989020501 ; serial 10800 ; refresh 3600 ; retry 3600000 ; expire 86400 ) ; minimum will be done to load the new data. If a master server cannot be contact ed when a refresh is due, the retry time specifies the interval at which refreshes should be attempted. If a master server cannot be contacted within the interval given by the expire time, all data from the zone is discarded by secondary servers. The minimum value is the cache time-to- live for negative answers (RFC 2308).
The boot file directives ``domain'' and ``suffixes'' have been obsoleted by a more useful, resolver-based implementation of suffixing for partial ly-qualified domain names. The prior mechanisms could fail under a num ber of situations, especially when then local nameserver did not have complete information. The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the server process using the kill(1) command: SIGHUP Causes server to read named.conf and reload the database. If the server is built with the FORCED_RELOAD compile-time option, then SIGHUP will also cause the server to check the serial num ber on all secondary zones; normally, the serial numbers are only checked at the SOA-specified intervals. SIGINT Dumps the current data base and cache to ``/var/tmp/named_dump.db'' or the value of _PATH_DUMPFILE. SIGILL Dumps statistics data into named.stats if the server is com piled with -DSTATS. Statistics data is appended to the file. SIGSYS Dumps the profiling data in /var/tmp if the server is compiled with profiling (server forks, chdirs and exits). SIGTERM Saves any modified dynamic zones to the file system, and shuts down the server. SIGUSR1 Turns on debugging; each SIGUSR1 increments debug level. (SIGEMTon older systems without SIGUSR1.) SIGUSR2 Turns off debugging completely. (SIGFPEon older systems without SIGUSR2.) SIGWINCH Toggles logging of all incoming queries via syslog(8) (requires server to have been built with the QRYLOG option).
/etc/named.conf default name server configu ration file /var/run/named.pid (_PATH_PIDFILE) the process id /var/tmp/named_dump.db (_PATH_DUMPFILE) dump of the name server database /var/tmp/named.run (file: _PATH_DEBUG) debug output /var/tmp/named.stats (file: _PATH_STATS) nameserver statistics data
Man(1) output converted with man2html